If anyone does not confess that Emmanuel is, in truth, God, and therefore that the holy virgin is Theotokos (for she bore in a fleshly manner the Word from God become flesh), let him be anathema. , Calvin rejected calling Mary the "mother of God," saying, "I cannot think such language either right, or becoming, or suitable. German has the translation Gottesgebärerin (lit. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. "Mother of God" is the literal translation of a distinct title in Greek, Μήτηρ τοῦ Θεοῦ (translit. The proper translation of Theotokos is "the one who brought forth God" and the difference is important.  The usual English translation is simply "Mother of God"; Latin uses Deipara or Dei Genetrix. The term has had great historical importance because the Nestorians, who stressed the independence of the divine and human natures in Christ, opposed its use, on the ground that it compromised the human nature of Christ, and held that the more accurate and proper term for Mary was Christotokos (“Christ-Bearer”). Another suggestion is that it be rendered 'the bringer forth of God.' The Iveron Theotokos (Iverskaya), an 11th-century Russian icon based on the 10th-century Hodegetria type, Iviron Monastery, Mount Athos. the topic of Christology, and the titles of God the Son and Son of man). The Intercession of the Theotokos, or the Protection of Our Most Holy Lady Theotokos and Ever-Virgin Mary, is a feast of the Mother of God celebrated in the Eastern Orthodox and Byzantine Catholic Churches. The usual Latin translations, Dei Genitrix or Deipara (approximately "parent (fem.) The use of Theotokos was formally affirmed at the Third Ecumenical Council held at Ephesus in 431. ", In 1994, Pope John Paul II and Patriarch of the Assyrian Church of the East Mar Dinkha IV signed an ecumenical declaration, mutually recognizing the legitimacy of the titles "Mother of God" and "Mother of Christ." The two most common are Theotokos and Mother of God. The council accepted Cyril's reasoning, affirmed the title Theotokos for Mary, and anathematized Nestorius' view as heresy. The Seven Ecumenical Councils - Christian Classics Ethereal Library", Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона, "The rejection of the term Theotokos by Nestorius Constantinople and the refutation of his teaching by Cyril of Alexandria", "The Ecumenical Councils and Authority in and of the Church", John Calvin, Epistle CCC to the French church in London, "Common Christological Declaration between the Catholic Church and the Assyrian Church of the East", Study of the Mother of the Lord the All-Holly Theotokos and Ever-Virgin Mary, The rejection of the term Theotokos by Nestorius Constantinople and the refutation of his teaching by Cyril of Alexandria, The rejection of the term Theotokos by Nestorius Constantinople, International Alliance of Catholic Knights, Veneration of Mary in the Catholic Church, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Theotokos&oldid=989987580, Eastern Orthodox icons of the Virgin Mary, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles containing Classical Syriac-language text, Articles containing Russian-language text, Articles containing Church Slavonic-language text, Articles lacking reliable references from August 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. The Lindisfarne Gospels. The earliest surviving image in a Western illuminated manuscript of the Madonna and Child comes from the Book of Kells of about 800 (there is a similar carved image on the lid of St Cuthbert's coffin of 698). In the Person of Jesus Christ there is now an indestructible meeting place—or joining together—of our fallen race and the Holy God Who created us. ... To call the Virgin Mary the mother of God can only serve to confirm the ignorant in their superstitions. Again I object that, from a rhetorical standpoint, the expression is very open to criticism; and from a lexicographical point of view it is entirely inadequate, for while indeed the parturition does necessarily involve in the course of nature the previous conception and nutrition, it certainly does not express it. ( "who gave birth to one who was God", "whose child was God"). Autocephaly recognized universally de facto, by some Autocephalous Churches de jure: Autocephaly recognized by Constantinople and 3 other Autocephalous Churches: One of the two earliest known depictions of the Virgin Mary is found in the Catacomb of Priscilla (3rd century) showing the adoration of the Magi. Geri Parlby, “The Origins of Marian Art in the Catacombs and the Problems of Identification,” in Chris Maunder, ed., Origins of the Cult of the Virgin Mary (London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2008) 41-56. At issue is the interpretation of the Incarnation, and the nature of the hypostatic union of Christ's human and divine natures between Christ's conception and birth. Some times it is enough to concentrate on the most important thing. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... 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